Tuesday, May 8, 2018

Princess Charlotte of Wales in the news 1796-1809

I have recently renewed an interest in Princess Charlotte of Wales, daughter of the Prince and Princess of Wales, the infamous Prinny and his unloved wife Caroline.

This daughter of the egregious couple showed enormous promise. Despite a neglected upbringing, she was bright, personable and intelligent. The newspapers of the day have fewer notices of her presence in her early years than I would have expected. Even her birth was less acclaimed than I thought it might be.
Hampshire Chronicle - Saturday 09 January 1796
The heir to the throne was named Charlotte Augusta. Her parents were already estranged, and her difficult father did his best to keep mother and daughter apart. She lived alone with nurses and governesses almost from the beginning. And yet she carried out royal duties; the earliest reported in the newspapers was in 1799.
Chester Courant Tues 25 June 1799
Her grandfather and grandmother, King George III and Queen Charlotte, and her maiden aunts, were the best constants in her young life.
Morning Post - Monday 02 February 1801
Morning Post - Friday 30 October 1801
She was not completely without contact with her mother even when Charlotte was away from London at the seaside.
Kentish Weekly Post or Canterbury Journal - Friday 18 September 1801
And  when the Prince of Wales was ill, someone was looking out for Charlotte's  interests as he never did.
Bury and Norwich Post - Wednesday 28 January 1801
What must have been the highlight of her earliest years took place in the Christmas season of 1802 and was reported on January 5, 1803.
Bury and Norwich Post - Wednesday 05 January 1803
I find two things notable about this article's comments. One is that the Princess of Wales was not invited to the party. And the other is that the 'young ladies' wore pantaloons with their frocks!

In 1805, just after Charlotte's ninth birthday, her household changed. It was only one of many changes that occurred over her lifetime as the fickle Prince, her father, tried to tighten his control and his mastery of his wife and his heir.
Kentish Weekly Post or Canterbury Journal - Friday 25 January 1805
In the following years, Princess Charlotte was a footnote in the news at family birthdays, and frequently socialized with her grandparents.
Chester Courant - Tuesday 11 June 1805
Morning Chronicle - Wednesday 21 January 1807

Kentish Weekly Post or Canterbury Journal - Friday 05 June 1807
I can imagine eleven year old Charlotte's delight about the pretty dress noted above. (The newspapers printed copious notes about the gowns of the royals at the birthday parties of the sovereigns.) Even La Belle Assemblee celebrated the Princess in 1807.
La Belle Assemblee  February 1807 HRH Princess Charlotte

Finally, in 1809, Charlotte's own birthday was celebrated in something approaching the style to which an heir to the throne of England was surely entitled.
Morning Chronicle - Friday 13 January 1809

It must be noted however that the party was not held in a palace nor was it hosted by the child's parents. It was not even held in London. The occasion stands as a monument to Charlotte's strange and difficult upbringing.

She was not without supporters though--she was highly regarded as the great hope of the nation by the people of England. And she had family who truly loved her, among them her favourite uncle, her mother's brother, the Duke of Brunswick.

Morning Chronicle - Saturday 02 September 1809
Next month, I'll consider what the newspapers print about the last eight years of the short, difficult life of Princess Charlotte.

'Til then, all the best,


Thursday, April 5, 2018

"The Mariner's Chronicle" and thrill-seeking literature of the Regency era

When I first encountered "The Mariner's Chronicle" I thought it might be some worthy treatise of sea-faring matters for an island people. I was soon disabused of that notion; the 'purple prose' and the melodramatic illustrations were clearly aiming to provide a different sort of instruction. The title page made it plain.

This was no informational exposition. This was entertainment.
Lieut. Jones exhorting the Crew of the Wager to their Duty
There are however a great many facts among the stories, and some of them may be true. The shipwrecks described cover one hundred and fifty years of history, and some no doubt were dramatized from years of retelling. The more recent accounts have a ring of authenticity, but all the stories are told to elicit emotion from the reader.

The story of the Proserpine is harrowing:
Loss of the Proserpine Frigate in the River Elbe Feb. 1799

As are the details about the Winterton:
The Loss of the Winterton East Indiaman, off the Island of Madagascar, Aug. 20, 1792
 The story of the Apollo and its companion ships is epic.
Narrative of the Loss of the Apollo Frigate, and Twenty-nine Sail of West Indiamen, near Figuera, on the Coast of Portugal, April the 2d, 1804


This genre of Regency literature is far from the decorous presentation of information in the Gentleman's Magazine and the likes of La Belle Assemblee or Ackermann's Repository of Arts. And there were more books like The Mariner's Chronicle available.  

The Criminal Recorder looks titillating. Search for it here
 And The British Trident is sure to stir patriotism. It can be found here
These books give a fascinating view of a certain segment of Regency society: what they found entertaining, what they found noteworthy, and even the styles of writing they preferred. But I am sure the appeal crossed all kinds of boundaries--an earl's teenage son would find them as interesting as a printer's apprentice would, and a squire's daughter would shed tears over shipwrecks as readily as a debutante. Take a look; you will be entertained!

'Til next time,


Monday, March 5, 2018

Commercial Schools--The Industrial Revolution and Education

At the beginning of the Regency era, in 1811, there were relatively few schools in Britain. Some dame schools existed, where lucky infants learned their letters. There were some Church of England primary schools, and some grammar schools. Across the country there were governesses and vicars with varying degrees of expertise teaching children a variety of subjects including the classics (for boys), needlework (for girls), a smattering of languages, a little deportment, and some history and religion.

For the gentry and nobility, there were boarding schools for both sexes. At these the girls were taught essentials of display and the basics of reading and writing. The boys were taught Latin, Greek and the gamut of classical literature and history.

For the lower classes, there was vocational training for both male and female children. There were apprenticeships with harsh taskmasters, and there was the household school of 'service' with equally grim butlers and housekeepers as teachers.

None of this education addressed the needs of the new industrial society. The Industrial Revolution was creating a new middle class. This middle class had money, a desire for standing among its peers, and a need for the tools which would help them succeed in business. A new sort of school grew up to fill this need--the commercial school. These schools flourished and multiplied right from the beginning of the nineteenth century.

Salisbury and Winchester Journal - Monday 11 July 1803
Hampshire Chronicle - Monday 15 July 1805
A telling sentence in the advertisement below makes clear the school's objectives:
"Its principal object is the qualifying youth for business."
Public Ledger and Daily Advertiser - Friday 17 January 1806
Leeds Intelligencer - Monday 22 June 1807
The objective of the above school is made very clear in its advertisement.

The sort of books from which the new subjects were taught are listed in this advertisment, below:
Bristol Mirror - Saturday 07 October 1809
Hampshire Chronicle - Monday 22 July 1811
As the decades advance, the word 'mathematics' becomes more prominent as above. This was the subject the new world of business most required.
Bristol Mirror - Saturday 09 January 1813
This school above attempted to be all things to all people (well, boys and young men, at least).

This advertisement below lists instruction in practical subjects at 24 guineas per annum and classical subjects at 4 guineas each per annum. The classics have become 'add-ons'.
Bristol Mirror - Saturday 17 July 1819
This is a brave new world indeed; a world of industry and business.

'Til next time,


Sources: http://britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/

Monday, February 5, 2018

The Serpentine - Hyde Park's River/Lake

Hyde Park once contained a river--the Westbourne--which formed ponds (originally possibly monastic fish ponds) in the Park. In 1730 Queen Caroline ordered that the Westbourne be dammed to create a long, narrow artificial lake as part of the Park redevelopment.
Detail of the 1746 Rocque map showing the newly constructed Serpentine. (Wikipedia)

The Serpentine quickly became a focal point for the Park and a centre, during the Regency, of newsworthy activity. At the beginning of the century the news was all bad.

Morning Chronicle - Saturday 30 May 1801
Saunders's News-Letter - Friday 03 December 1802

Oxford University and City Herald - Saturday 05 December 1807
 Skaters on the Serpentine in Hyde Park by Julius Caesar Ibbitson (1786)

 In 1808, however, some pleasant stories about the Serpentine appeared.
Kentish Weekly Post or Canterbury Journal - Friday 15 April 1808

Globe - Tuesday 27 December 1808
View of the Serpentine River, Hyde Park, looking from Kensington Gardens 1787
 The Serpentine's walk was the site of sporting events
Morning Post - Thursday 17 June 1813
 And research was aiming to make the Serpentine and other urban bodies of water safer places.
Bury and Norwich Post - Wednesday 08 December 1813
 Frost was always a problem and the lure of ice skating and sliding created many issues in 
Morning Post - Saturday 03 February 1816
Morning Chronicle - Monday 23 December 1816
The great tragedy of the Serpentine was its use as a method of suicide. The desperate, too often young women, chose drowning as their escape from their troubles. 
Oxford University and City Herald - Saturday 25 June 1814

Sussex Advertiser - Monday 04 April 1814
In December 1816 Harriet Westbrook, the pregnant wife of the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley, was found drowned in the Serpentine. I cannot discover that the newspapers had anything to say about that event.

Despite its checkered past, the Serpentine is still a lovely feature of Hyde Park and a tribute to the vision of our Georgian forebearers.

'Til next time,


Wednesday, January 3, 2018

Patent Medicine -- Regency universal remedies

During the Regency era medical treatment, as we know it, was in its infancy. Establishments like the Medical Society of London and the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh were beginning to disseminate medical information and train doctors, but it would be later in the 19th century before significant medical strides were made. Until then the care of those requiring medical aid was in the hands of the hard-to-find trained physicians and the under-educated barber-surgeons. Those who did not have access to these practitioners relied upon apothecaries and wise-women educated in herbal lore and experiential healing.
The Book of English Trades: And Library of the Useful Arts by John Souter
The dearth of knowledge in the field of medicine led to the development of a huge quantity of 'patent' medicines, that is, herbal and alcoholic concoctions whose efficacy had no factual basis. Of course, patent medicines still thrive today, but at least we have agencies overseeing their ingredients, their claims, and their use.

During the Regency, there was no oversight. Patent medicines and the shops in which they were sold flourished.

Stamford Mercury - Friday 16 September 1803
Bell's Monthly Compendium of Advertisements for August 1807
Bristol Mirror - Saturday 28 April 1810
Manchester Mercury - Tuesday 09 September 1800
Birmingham Chronicle - Thursday 02 December 1819
Likely there were among the patent medicines some innocuous remedies that provided relief for some conditions. But too often they were adulterated, and worse, they were reliant on additives like alcohol, opium, and cocaine. These concoctions could have deadly results. This tragedy (below) occurred as a result of the use of an 'imitation' of a well-known cure-all "Godfrey's Cordial".
Aris's Birmingham Gazette - Monday 22 February 1808
It was common knowledge that patent medicines were dubious science. Even the cartoonists lampooned them:
T. Rowlandson and G. Woodward, 1801 (Credit Wellcome Library, London. Wellcome Images)
But the ultimate in chicanery came from one Dr. Sibly. The claims for his product were numerous, and culminated in an assertion that it could reanimate a person on the verge of death.
Chester Chronicle - Friday 06 November 1818
Leeds Mercury - Saturday 26 October 1816
 The sheer quantity of advertisements for patent medicines in publications of the Regency era indicates their availability, and their popularity. I just hope they helped more people than they injured.

'Til next time,


Source: https://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/